Por Cyd Ollack.

La Guerra de 1812 se llevó a cabo entre el Imperio Británico y los EE. UU. La declaración de la Guerra siguió a una solicitud del presidente James Madison. El principal objetivo del presidente Madison era salvaguardar los barcos estadounidenses en alta mar y evitar que los británicos capturaran a los marineros estadounidenses. La relación entre los británicos y los nativos americanos también influyó en la decisión que tomó Madison.

James Madison
Andrew Jackson

La mayoría de los críticos argumentan que la Guerra de 1812 fue una Guerra de Madison. Sin embargo, otros lo ven como la segunda guerra estadounidense por la independencia.

La guerra de 1812 se inició por el fracaso en la restauración de la monarquía francesa durante la revolución francesa. La guerra estalló cuando Gran Bretaña capturó a los marineros estadounidenses.

Las personalidades importantes detrás de la guerra incluyeron a Quincy Adams, una personalidad destacada de las relaciones diplomáticas estadounidenses, Henry Clay, quien fue un presidente de la Cámara de Representantes y un destacado halcón de guerra, Isaac Brock, quien comandó las fuerzas británicas en Canadá, Thomas Cochrane, quien fue comandante de la Armada Real Británica, Andrew Jackson, quien obtuvo una sorprendente victoria sobre las fuerzas británicas, Thomas Macdonough, cuya contribución a la victoria en 1814, Robert Ross, un general británico que controlaba las fuerzas terrestres, William Winder, quien comandó un la fuerza estadounidense desorganizada en Bladensburg y el presidente Madison.

Quincy Adams

Los hechos ocurridos durante la Guerra de 1812 incluyeron la negativa de Chesapeake que obligó a los británicos a abrir fuego violando las leyes internacionales, y la carrera de Bladensburg en la que los británicos derrotaron a los estadounidenses dirigiéndose a Washington que quemaron. El final de la Guerra de 1812 se marcó con un acuerdo firmado en 1815; conocido como el Tratado de Gante. Otro evento importante durante el conflicto fue la Convención de Hartford utilizada por los federalistas de Nueva Inglaterra para discutir sus quejas.

Los esclavistas del Sur sintieron los impactos de la Guerra de 1812. La mayoría de los esclavos huyeron para participar en el conflicto. Los nativos americanos fueron los principales perdedores porque estaban a la par con los negros porque los británicos retiraron su apoyo financiero y militar. Fueron dejados para hacer frente a la creciente colonización blanca sin un liderazgo unificador.

En conclusión, la Guerra de 1812 brindó a los estadounidenses la oportunidad de fortalecerse y enriquecerse. A la larga, ninguno de los países combatientes estaba preparado para participar en el conflicto.

Enero 4, 2023


24 thoughts on “La guerra de 1812 en la historia americana”

    • Dario Negrón
    • posted on January 19, 2023


  1. I feel for the native Americans, abandoned by everyone.

  2. President Madison was seeking reelection in 1812. He hoped a war with Britian would boost his chances. Why would he think this? Because the War Hawks had done very well in the 1810 midterms. Congress had abolished the War Department earlier that year. In other words, the politicians didn’t see the War Hawks coming until they arrived.

    1. Hearing the American national anthem at a Blue Jays game in Toronto was very surreal. A song about a battle in a war between their country and ours, where the city I was currently in was sacked at a game where the 2 countries in question are competing in sport.

    • Minuteman
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    At the start of the war Britain had only two regular regiments in the Canadas plus a number of fencible battalions.
    Throughout its short history the US has been an aggressive, imperialist state (1812, US Mexican war, US Spanish war, Plains wars, Seminole wars, Grenada, Panama to name a few)

    1. Hmmm let me correct you: Mexico started the Mexican American war when it attacked American troops on the Rio Grande, Spain declared war first in the Spanish-American war and as for Grenada it was taken over by a communist dictatorship as for Panama Noriega was selling drugs and attacking US personnel. As for the Seminole wars it was because they were attacking US settlers in Georgia and Spain wasn’t doing anything to stop it. As for the war of 1812 there wouldn’t have been a war of Britain was stopping US trade and kidnapping sailors or supporting the native attacks in the American frontier. Sending in ships into American waters like HMS Leopard, Guerriere and Little Belt among others. Britain violated American sovereignty. who’s the real aggressor? A country has a right to defend itself. The British never countered in New York they tried it was at Plattsburgh.

  3. The risk to the north east was high because of pro-British sentiment in the New England industrial powerhouse. The Brits had sent veterans of the Napoleonic War, but also a broken and divided naval command structure down Lake Champlain. They were trounced by a unified American command and excellent intel from native guerillas. The British defeat on both water and land led to a bloody retreat of its army to Montreal. The battle shifted sentiments in New England and limited further threats to only the British Navy.

  4. Super interesantes todos estos datos… ahora me gusta más!!!

    • JR
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    Isn’t it true that Madison wanted to declare war on both France and England ? Especially to quell ideas that he was being used by Napoleon or that he showed favour towards France. I believe there is a letter he sent to Jefferson where he states his desire to declare war on both.
    I believe he was talked out of it as declaring war on France was pointless, what could they do, but England could be attacked through attacking Canada

    • Dr. Carl
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    I was taught about how the British burned down the settlement during this conflict. There is also a sunken British frigate in the Niagara river off of the Black Rock neighborhood.

    1. Thety were barbaric in those times

  5. Careful in mentioning the 1812 war, at least in Canada. A side show for the British, Napoleon’s war was the focal point for the UK.
    The looses were the native indian tribes.

    • lee festo
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    I thought it started because the UK didn’t respect the US. They boarded US ships and took sailors into the British Navy. That said, the UK used the Indians like the French did in the F&I war. I think in the long run, the supply lines were long and the US was more trouble than they were worth at the time. Also the UK had been fighting France and was in better shape than the US. That said, I think it helped the US to have a standing Army and maybe West Point

  6. At the start of 1812 Britain was singlehandedly in conflict with all of mainland Europe at the time, under a massive continental embargo (which is the reason why we drink tea btw) and yet still managed to fend off an attack on a continent away.

    • David Bowler
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    An article in The Smithsonian Magazine about 20 years ago stated several things; Britain had ended slavery in 1807 but US slavers were still trading, sometimes under false, often UK flags. The Royal Navy looked down upon such behavior, hence some of the impressment. Also the article went on to tell how, at that time, many of the “Canadian” colonists were former United Empire Loyalists, former American colonists who did not support the Revolution and had escaped to Canada and who had left friends, often family and properties in the US. Many Americans likewise had no stomach for war with their former friends and relatives. Had not “War Hawks” instigated this war, scholars believe that eventual union of the two colonies would have been inevitable, given the common interests of both ‘countries’ at the time. The War of 1812 put a permanent end to that dream! Also, as taught in Canadian schools, the attack on Washington was felt to be in retaliation for a raid on York

    • Riddle
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    Most of us in the UK have never heard of this war. We’ve had so many foreign wars that this war is just a footnote, if that.

      • Big bang Man
      • posted on January 19, 2023

      Eneterly true

    • gregory
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    Another scuffle causing tensions at the time, although to a lesser degree, was the rivalry between US and Britain on the frontier to capture the fur trade, particularly in Oregon territory. US fur trappers established a trading post on the mouth of the Columbia just before British trappers arrived and elbowed the US trappers out. After 1812, the countries agreed to shared exploitation of the territory, which removed the international factor and placed the rivalry on the local companies themselves. Eventually, US expansion and emigration would convert Oregon into a US territory.

      • Peck Man
      • posted on January 19, 2023

      Money, money, money. It is all about money.

    • Frankie Skoranic
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    The British back then were like the Proud Boys today.

    • Joe Republic
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    Imagine if Britain wasn’t fighting Napoleon in Europe….I’m American but I’m damn sure we’d be like Australia, Canada, and New Zealand today if Britain sent their full force against us

      • "cleveland" krezshnik
      • posted on January 19, 2023

      Amazing to think that the British last war, with the United States, is more recent than their last war with the French

    • Nati Villazán
    • posted on January 19, 2023

    Si Napoleón no hubiera vendido Luisiana a los Estados Unidos en 1803, Gran Bretaña habría terminado con ella después de las guerras napoleónicas y el Canadá actual se habría extendido hasta el golfo de México. Estados Unidos seria una franja chiquita.

  7. I live in Niagara Falls and a lot of these battles took place right near me. I live 30 seconds away from Lundy’s Lane. My public school growing up was called “battlefield”. It was the site of the battle of Lundy’s Lane. You could actually find musket balls in the field sometimes. And right next to our field was a cemetery where Laura Secord is buried. Cool stuff.


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